: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects on bone regeneration of the resorbable hydroxyapatite-coated micro/nanofibrous membranes fabricated from poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) and bioactive CaO-SiO2 by electrospinning in comparison with commercially available non-resorbable membranes and resorbable collagen membranes through the experiments of rabbit calvarial bone defects.: Guided bone regeneration (GBR) surgery using non-resorbable membranes (Gore-tex®; Group NR, n=8), resorbable collagen membranes (Ossix®; Group RC, n=8) and hydroxyapatitecoated PCL/ CaO-SiO2 micro/nanofibrous membranes (Group HA, n=6) was conducted on calvarial bone defects of twenty two healthy New Zealand White male rabbits. The surface morphologies of the membranes in three groups were investigated by scanning electron microscopy prior to surgery. Histological and histomorphometric analyses were also performed at 2 and 4 weeks after surgery to evaluate the effect on bone regeneration and to assess the osteoconductivity in vivo. : Hydroxyapatites coating was confirmed on the membranes made of PCL and CaO-SiO2 gel ﬁbers in group HA, whereas it was not identified in the other groups. Histological analyses revealed that large amount of newly formed bone existed over the defect area in all groups. A remarkable feature was that new bone formation was under way directly beneath the membrane or as closely incorporated pattern into the membrane structure indicating osteoconductivity and vigorous bone formation in group HA. Histomorphometric results revealed that there was a tendency for larger amount of newly formed bone to exist at 2 weeks after surgery in group HA compared to other groups, however, it did not reach statistical significance. : The resorbable hydroxyapatite-coated micro/nanofibrous membranes fabricated from electrospun PCL and bioactive CaO-SiO2 have high osteoconductivity and promoting effect of new bone formation in GBR of rabbit calvarial defects in the early stage of bone healing.
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